Tiago Paixão



+43(0)2243 9000 3031

Research interests

Phenotypes are the raw material on which natural selection can act upon but they are not inherited or modified directly. To understand phenotypic evolution we must understand the way in which genotypes produce complex phenotypes — the genotype-phenotype map. I am interested in how features of genotype-phenotype maps affect the production of phenotypic variation, the evolutionary process and how they themselves evolve. For this, I use a combination of mathematical models of explicit genotype-phenotype maps (for example, models of gene regulatory networks) and evolutionary simulations.


  • Sujal S. Phadke, Tiago Paixao, Tuan Pham, Stephanie Pham and Rebecca A. Zufall "Genetic Background Alters Dominance Relationships between mat Alleles in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila" Journal of Heredity 2013; doi: 10.1093/jhered/est063
  • Hong-An Long, Tiago Paixão, Ricardo B. R. Azevedo, Rebecca A. Zufall "Accumulation of Spontaneous Mutations in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila", Genetics -in press
  • Tiago Paixão and Nick Barton "A Variance Decomposition Approach to the Analysis of Genetic Algorithms", GECCO'13 Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, (2013) 845-852
  • Nick Barton and Tiago Paixão "Can Quantitative and Population Genetics Help us Understand Evolutionary Computation?" GECCO'13 Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (2013) 1573-1580
  • Tiago Paixão, Sujal Phadke, Ricardo BR Azevedo and Rebecca Zufall (2011) "Sex ratio evolution under probabilistic sex determination" Evolution 65(7):2050-60
  • Tiago Paixão and Ricardo BR Azevedo (2010) "Redundancy and the evolution of cis-regulatory element multiplicity" PLoS Computational Biology 6(7):e1000848
  • Tim F Cooper, Tiago Paixão and Jack A Heinemann (2010) "Within-host competition selects for plasmid-encoded toxin-antitoxin systems" Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277(1697): 3149-55
  • Ricardo BR Azevedo, Rolf Lohaus and Tiago Paixão (2008) "Networking Networks" Evolution and Development 10(5): 514-515
  • Tiago Paixão, Tiago P Carvalho, Dinis P Calado and Jorge Carneiro (2007) "Quantitative insights into stochastic monoallelic expression of cytokine genes" Immunology and Cell Biology 85: 315-322
  • Jorge Carneiro, Kalet Leon, Íris Caramalho, Carline van den Dool, Rui Gardner, Vanessa Oliveira, Marie-Louise Bergman, Nuno Sepúlveda, Tiago Paixão, José Faro and Jocelyne Demengeot (2007) "When three is not a crowd: a Crossregulation Model of the dynamics and repertoire selection of regulatory CD4+ T cells" Immunological Reviews 216(1): 48-68
  • Dinis P Calado, Tiago Paixão, Dan Holmberg and Matthias Haury (2006) "Stochastic Monoallelic Expression of IL-10 in T Cells" The Journal of Immunology 177:5358-5364
  • Jorge Carneiro, Tiago Paixão, Dejan Milutinovic, João Sousa, Kalet Leon, Rui Gardner and José Faro (2005) "Immunological Self-Tolerance: Lessons from mathematical models" Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 184: 77-100