A central question of neuroscience is how complex brain functions, such as learning, memory, pattern separation, pattern completion, and coding of information, emerge from the function of neuronal elements, like molecules, synapses, and neurons. To address this fundamental question, IST Austria has established an interdisciplinary neuroscience research program addressing this question at several levels: at the molecular and developmental level, at the cellular an synaptic level, and the microcircuit and network level. A central goal of the Neuroscience groups is to study brain function at a quantitative level. Another major goal is to develop quantitative models, following the Hopfield quote: “Build it, and you understand it“. Peter Jonas was appointed as a Founder of this Neuroscience Cluster in 2010, followed by Gašper Tkačik, Jozsef Csicsvari, Simon Hippenmeyer, Ryuichi Shigemoto, and Gaia Novarino, and recently Sandra Siegert. The Neuroscience faculty is highly international, with professors from six different countries. The long-term goal is to establish a Neuroscience Research Cluster, which by 2026, will be composed of 15 research groups. The home of Neuroscience is Lab Building East, the futuristic architecture of which is reminiscent of the cutting-edge experimental neuroscience projects performed in this building. Several cutting-edge techniques are implemented here, including subcellular patch-clamp recording, confocal and two-photon imaging, electron microscopy, in vivo recording, optogenetics, and molecular biology.