Cremer Group

Social Immunity

Social insects fight disease as a cooperative unit. Together, they perform nest hygiene and mutual sanitary care, effectively reducing the risk of infection and disease transmission through the colony. The Cremer group studies how collective protection arises at the colony level from individual behaviors and social interactions in ants.

The disease defense of ants is amazingly similarly organized to the immune system within our own bodies. This is because a colony of social insects, like bees, ants and termites, is a single reproductive unit made out of thousands to millions of individual organisms. Like the cells in our body, the different individuals in the colony specialize on different tasks: the queen (germline) on reproduction and the sterile workers (soma) on colony maintenance and brood rearing. Every ant protects itself by individual hygiene and a physiological immune system that effectively fights off microbes. In addition, workers clean the nest environment by spraying their antimicrobial poison, nibbling-off pathogens from one another’s body, and by treating infections. Thereby, they cooperatively prevent pathogen contamination, replication and spread through the colony.

On this site:



Max Aubry

PhD Student


Anna Franschitz

PhD Student


Anna Grasse

Senior Laboratory Technician

+43 2243 9000 3409


Michaela Hönigsberger

Predoctoral Visiting Scientist


Sina Metzler

PhD Student


Jinook Oh



Jennifer Robb

Project Technician


Linda Sartoris

PhD Student


Florian Strahodinsky

PhD Student

Current Projects

Collective hygiene in ant societies | Social interaction networks and epidemiology | Disease resistance and tolerance | Costs and benefits of social immunization

Recent Publications

Milutinovic B, Stock M, Grasse AV, Naderlinger E, Hilbe C, Cremer S. 2020. Social immunity modulates competition between coinfecting pathogens. Ecology Letters. 23(3), 565–574. View

Schmid-Hempel P, Cremer S. 2020.Parasites and Pathogens. In: Encyclopedia of Social Insects. . View

Cremer S. 2019. Social immunity in insects. Current Biology. 29(11), R458–R463. View

Cremer S. 2019. Pathogens and disease defense of invasive ants. Current Opinion in Insect Science. 33, 63–68. View

Cremer S, Kutzer M. 2019.Social immunity. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. , 747–755. View

View All Publications


since 2015 Professor, IST Austria
2010 – 2015 Assistant Professor, IST Austria
2010 Habilitation, University of Regensburg, Germany
2006 – 2010 Group Leader, University of Regensburg, Germany
2006 Junior Fellow, Institute of Advanced Studies, Berlin, Germany
2002 – 2006 Postdoc, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
2002 PhD, University of Regensburg, Germany

Selected Distinctions

2017 ERC Consolidator Grant
2015 Elisabeth Lutz Prize, Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW)
2013 Walther Arndt Prize of the German Zoological Society (DZG)
2012 Research Award Lower Austria: Anerkennungspreis des Landes Niederösterreich
2011 Elected Member of the Young Academy of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW); Alumna since 2019
2009 ERC Starting Grant
2008 Member of the Young Academy of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities; Alumna since 2013

Additional Information

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